Well-Being Georgia

in partnership with

Augusta University of Health

COVID-19 Impact on Georgia Latest Articles

April 16, 2021

How Pets Have Helped People Cope During the Pandemic

How Pets Have Helped People Cope During the Pandemic

Updated on April 9, 2021 at 4:00pm EDT.

The COVID-19 pandemic, now stretching into its second year, has left many of us craving companionship. And while people have been physically distanced for what may seem like an eternity, they’ve increasingly turned to four-legged friends for comfort.  

It’s no surprise that interest in pet adoption has surged over the past year. Both in the United States and other parts of the world, Google searches for “adopt a dog” increased significantly between March and May 2020, when stay-at-home orders were widely implemented.

The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA) experienced an unprecedented response, with inquiries to its adoption center in New York City nearly doubling between March and October 2020, compared to the same period in 2019. Meanwhile, animals being placed in foster homes through the agency’s NYC and Los Angeles programs shot up nearly 70 percent in the first few weeks of lockdown.

Actual adoptions also spiked at shelters across the U.S. early on in the pandemic, with some even emptying 100 percent of their cages. Industry data also suggests that the number of animals euthanized during the past year also dropped 44 percent.

But it’s not just homeless animals who have been dealt a rare lucky card in the midst of world doom and gloom.

“A big reason why people want pets is that they are so comforting,” says Steve Gruber, the director of communications at the Mayor’s Alliance for NYC’s Animals, a nonprofit that advocates for pet adoption and fostering and provides resources for pet owners and others who want to help animals.

“The pandemic altered everyone’s lives,” Gruber notes. “People were scared, anxious, angry and isolated. Many people chose to adopt or foster for the unconditional love a pet provides. For those who are isolated, their pets are a lifeline, providing companionship and something other than themselves to care for.”

“During lockdown, the excuses often given for not being able to have a dog or other pet—such as not having the time for daily walks—evaporated,” Gruber adds. “Not only did people want to adopt, now they could.”

Furry friends with benefits
The bond between humans and dogs—both social animals—dates back to prehistoric times, as suggested by the discovery of a 14,500-year-old grave in Germany holding the remains of two humans alongside a puppy. No one can say what their exact relationship was, but researchers speculate that dogs may have been domesticated that far back not just for work purposes but also for companionship and emotional connection.

Stacey Frenette, who works in IT and lives on her own in Boston’s North End neighborhood, can attest to the strong bond that can form between pets and their people, especially in times of crisis. In early April 2020, when her city was in lockdown, a short-haired dachshund puppy became the “best friend” she could ever have imagined. She’s been documenting his life on his own Instagram account, fittingly named @oscar_theteenieweenie.

Frenette’s busy work and travel schedule made it tough for her to have a dog pre-pandemic, but being forced to stay at home over the past year finally gave her the chance to properly train and spend time with a furry new housemate. 

Getting Oscar “was the best decision ever,” she says. Not only does he give her a reason to get up and get moving every day but he has also, ironically, opened up her world to new people in the midst of social distancing and isolation. These acquaintances include the store owners, servers at local restaurants and other dog parents she meets along her many walks with him.

“I had lived in the same place for so long but still knew so few of my neighbors,” Frenette adds. “That all changed with Oscar. I feel part of a community now.”

Despite the challenges and responsibilities of being a first-time dog mom, Oscar is good company and has made her happier. “There are so many things I love about Oscar,” says Frenette, noting that she describes him as a goofball full of personality, with a tail that never stops wagging and a bark that’s more like a Doberman’s than what you’d expect from a 13-pound dog on 3-inch legs.

Amera Labib and Ariel Brill, both self-employed, have jumped on the pet bandwagon, too. Living together in a small apartment in New York City for close to a year, they wondered if taking in a dog would be the wisest move. But when they set their eyes on Luna, a 4-year-old miniature schnauzer with big ears and a calm demeanor, they couldn’t say no.

“We noticed how quickly she minimized whatever stressors we were facing,” says Brill, whose personal training business took a hit in the pandemic, leaving him and Labib, a psychotherapist working from the single bedroom, holed up in close quarters together for hours on end.

“Luna has also brought a sense of newness and excitement to our days, which, face it, had begun to feel hazy and repetitious under lockdown,” Brill adds.

And it’s helped their relationship grow. “It’s not just us we have to take care of now,” Labib says. “We have this other sentient being depending on us—even if we are sometimes a little jealous of the attention each of us lavishes on her."

Pets are more than good company
It’s well recognized in the scientific literature that our four-legged companions can help make us healthier humans, both physically and mentally. Studies have cited better cardiovascular health in dog owners, along with higher self-esteem, less loneliness and depression, and lower levels of perceived stress and anxiety.

Pets, particularly dogs, may even help us live longer, according to the American Heart Association. Most of the research has been on dogs and cats—our favorite pets—but even fish, snakes and goats have been shown to have possible health benefits. 

A June 2019 study published in AERA Open suggests that simply petting an animal can reduce levels of cortisol, the body’s primary “fight or flight” hormone released as a normal response to intensely stressful or dangerous situations. But a chronically elevated level, which may occur during prolonged periods of stress and anxiety, increases risk for heart disease and other health problems.

Notably, high cortisol can lower the immune response, increasing susceptibility to pathogens, including SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus that causes COVID-19.

Think before you adopt
A September 2020 study published in PLOS ONE of nearly 6,000 people under lockdown in the UK affirmed that human-animal interactions can provide a social support buffer to psychological distress and loneliness.

But it also found that caring for a pet during the pandemic was a stressor itself for many pet owners, who worried about having limited access to veterinary services and medication and whether they would be able to buy food and provide adequate outdoor activity time for their pets.

The pandemic has been a boon for homeless animals, but there’s some concern that pet abandonments may rise in coming months as normal life resumes. Experts warn there could be a large influx of animals at shelters as people who have adopted pets face eviction or other financial hardships. The last thing you want to do is bring a new pet into your household only to have to relinquish it later. Before you get a pet, ask yourself these questions:

If you want a dog, which breed is best for you? Certain dogs are more suitable for kids and are easier to groom or train than others. Do you want a pup with high energy or one that will cozy up with you on Netflix night (or both)? Size may be an important factor, especially if you live in a small space without easy outdoor access. The Dog Breed Selector tool from the American Kennel Club can help you choose.

Do you have pet allergies? There’s no such thing as a truly hypoallergenic pet—and choosing one that’s touted as “low-allergen” or “doesn’t shed” doesn’t guarantee that you won’t have a reaction. That’s because the primary allergen is not the fur or hair but rather certain proteins present in the pet’s dander, saliva and urine.

Do you mind some mess and commotion? Dogs like to chew shoes, may have accidents indoors and could annoy close neighbors if they bark too much. Cats like to scratch furniture and knock things over and may stop using the litter box. Some behavioral training goes a long way, but there are no guarantees your pet will ever be perfect.

Can you afford it? Pet care and insurance cost money. In addition to food, you need to pay for vet visits (both routine and emergency), vaccinations, pet supplies, toys and, if needed, grooming services and pet walkers, sitters and boarding. If finances are a concern, fostering may be a better—albeit temporary—option since the shelter or rescue group usually pays for all medical care and can often provide food and supplies.

Do you have the time and energy to invest in a pet? Besides needing obedience and house training, dogs have to be socialized and exercised regularly—and they need companionship themselves as well as playtime with you.

What happens when the pandemic ends? If you are working remotely now, what will happen if you return to your office or other work site? After months of being home together, pets are likely to be hyper-attached to their owners (and vice versa). Planning ahead for changes in your routine can help ease this transition.

Medically reviewed in April 2021.

Sources:
PetPoint. “Shelter Watch Report. COVID-19 Impact.” Sept 2020.
PetPoint. “Pet Health Community. Zeid Talks (Steve Zeidman on Animal Welfare Management and Technology.” Mar 2021.
Shelter Animals Count. “Tracking the Impact of Covid-19.” Jul 2020.
Janssens, Luc & Street, Martin & Miller, Rebecca & Hazewinkel, Herman & Giemsch, Liane & Schmitz, Ralf. (2016). “The oldest case yet reported of osteoarthritis in a dog: An archaeological and radiological evaluation.” Journal of Small Animal Practice.
Morgan, L., Protopopova, A., Birkler, R.I.D. et al. “Human–dog relationships during the COVID-19 pandemic: booming dog adoption during social isolation.” Humanit Soc Sci Commun 7, 155 (2020).
Powell, L., Edwards, K.M., McGreevy, P. et al. “Companion dog acquisition and mental well-being: a community-based three-arm controlled study.” BMC Public Health 19, 1428 (2019).
Chadwin R. “Evacuation of Pets During Disasters: A Public Health Intervention to Increase Resilience.” Am J Public Health. 2017;107(9):1413-1417. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2017.303877
Andrea Maugeri, PhD, Jose R. Medina-Inojosa, MD, Sarka Kunzova, MD, et al. “Dog Ownership and Cardiovascular Health: Results From the Kardiovize 2030 Project.” Mayo Clinic Proceedings. Vol 3, Issue 3, p 268-275, Sept 1, 2019.
Gee NR, Mueller MK, Curl AL. “Human-Animal Interaction and Older Adults: An Overview.” Front Psychol. 2017;8:1416. Published 2017 Aug 21. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01416
Yeager MP, Pioli PA, Guyre PM. “Cortisol exerts bi-phasic regulation of inflammation in humans.” Dose Response. 2011;9(3):332-347. 
Cleveland Clinic. “What Happens When Your Immune System Gets Stressed Out?” Mar 1, 2017.

Categories:

Well-Being